The Issues and the Challenges of Teenage Pregnancy: Investigating the Counseling Implications of the Speedy Remedial and Strategies for Sustainable Development


  • Dr Etini Otumo Department of Molecular Basis of Human Disease, University of Crete, School of Medicine, Greece
  • Glory Gabriel Umoh Department Of General Studies, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot Osuua, Ikot Ekpene


Teenage Pregnancy, Sustainable Development and Counseling Implications


The study analyzed the issues and challenges of teenage pregnancy, investigating the counseling implications of the speedy remedial measures and strategies for sustainable development. Teenage pregnancy poses significant health risks for both the mother and the baby. Young mothers may face complications during pregnancy and childbirth, including preterm birth, low birth weight, and an increased risk of maternal mortality. Teenage pregnancy often disrupts educational attainment. Young mothers may be forced to drop out of school, limiting their future opportunities and potential career paths. This educational setback can perpetuate the cycle of poverty, as individuals with lower educational levels often face challenges in securing stable employment and achieving financial independence. Since early pregnancies can perpetuate cycles of poverty and limited opportunities that can impede the long-term success of communities and nations, addressing these concerns is crucial to supporting sustainable development. Counselors play a crucial role in mitigating teenage pregnancy by addressing the various factors that contribute to this phenomenon, these factors include Counseling on reproductive health choices, exploring socioeconomic factors, promoting parental involvement, addressing mental health and emotional well-being, community engagement and awareness and advocating for accessible contraception The study concluded that teenage pregnancy poses significant challenges, including adverse effects on the health and well-being of both the adolescent mother and the child. These issues extend beyond personal consequences to impact societal development. Addressing teenage pregnancy requires comprehensive strategies that encompass education, access to contraceptives, and social support systems. One of the recommendations made was that comprehensive sex education programs should be implemented in schools to equip adolescents with accurate information about reproductive health, contraception, and responsible decision-making.


Akers, A. Y., Holland, C. L., & Bost, J. (2011). Interventions to improve parental communication about sex: a systematic review.

American Pregnancy Association, (2023) Teenage Pregnancy Available at:

Aspy, C. B., Vesely, S. K., Oman, R. F., et al. (2010). Parental communication and youth sexual behaviour.

Brownell M, Chartier M, Santos R, Ekuma O, Au W, Sarkar J, MacWilliam L, Burland E, Koseva I, Guenette W. (2008) How are Manitoba's Children Doing? Winnipeg, MB: Manitoba Centre for Health Policy, 2012.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2012). Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States, 2011.

Davis. C. P. (2023) DEFINITION OF PREGNANCY Available at: /pregnancy/definition.htm

Ganchimeg, T., Ota, E., Morisaki, N., et al. (2014). Pregnancy and childbirth outcomes among adolescent mothers: a World Health Organization multicountry study. Available at: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 121(Suppl 1), Pp. 40-48.

Ganchimeg, T., Ota, E., Morisaki, N., Laopaiboon, M., Lumbiganon, P., Zhang, J., ... & Mori, R. (2014). Pregnancy and childbirth outcomes among adolescent mothers: a World Health Organization multicountry study. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 121(s1), 40-48.

Gavin, L. E., Catalano, R. F., David-Ferdon, C., Gloppen, K. M., & Markham, C. M. (2010). A review of positive youth development programs that promote adolescent sexual and reproductive health.

Huffman W. J 2023 pregnancy Avaialble at:

IXL Learning (2023) pregnancy Available at;

K S. Eunice & Mosby (2013) Pregnancy: Condition Information National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. 19 December 2013

Kearney, M. S., & Levine, P. B. (2012). Exploring the consequences of unintended childbearing for the children of adolescents. The Journal of Human Resources, 47(3), 826-858.

Kirby, D. (2007). Emerging Answers 2007: Research Findings on Programs to Reduce Teen Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

Kirby, D. (2022). Antecedents of adolescent initiation of sex, contraceptive use, and pregnancy. Retrieved from: American Journal of Health Behavior, 26(6), Pp. 473-485.

Lindberg, L. D., Santelli, J. S., & Desai, S. (2016). Understanding the decline in adolescent fertility in the United States, 2007–2012.

Malays FAM.& K Kumar (2020) Prevalence of teenage pregnancy in 2015-2016 and its obstetric outcomes compared to non-teenage pregnancy at Hospital Tuanku Ja'afar Seremban (HTJS), Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia: A retrospective case-control study based on the national obstetric registry Available at:

Mollborn, S. (2017). Teenage mothers today: What we know and how it matters. Child Development Perspectives, 11(1), 63-69.

Plan International, (2023) Teenage Pregnancy Retrieved from:

Santelli, J., Lindberg, L., Finer, L., & Singh, S. (2007). Explaining recent declines in adolescent pregnancy in the United States: the contribution of abstinence and improved contraceptive use.

SmithBattle, L. (2019). Legitimizing claims: Becoming mother in the context of teenage pregnancy. Advances in Nursing Science, 32(3), E21-E34.

Thomas, L. & Cooke M. (2020) An Overview of Pregnancy Available at:

UNICEF (2022) early childbearing Available at:

United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). (2012). Motherhood in Childhood: Facing the Challenge of Adolescent Pregnancy.

Wikipedia (2023) Pregnancy Available at:

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, (2023) Teenage pregnancy Available at:,15%20to%2019%20years%20old.

World Health Organization (WHO). (2012) Making health services adolescent friendly: Developing national quality standards for adolescent-friendly health services.

Family Planning 2020. (2017). Adolescent and Youth Family Planning: Evidence Summary. Retrieved from

Gavin, L., Moskosky, S., Carter, M., Curtis, K., Glass, E., Godfrey, E., ... & Tepper, N. (2019). Providing Quality Family Planning Services: Recommendations of CDC and the U.S. Office of Population Affairs. MMWR Recommendations and Reports, 68(5), 1-54.

Kirby, D., Laris, B. A., & Rolleri, L. A. (2007). Sex and HIV education programs: Their impact on sexual behaviors of young people throughout the world. Journal of Adolescent Health, 40(3), 206-217.

Planned Parenthood. (2021). Counseling and Mental Health. Retrieved from

Santelli, J. S., Song, X., Garbers, S., Sharma, V., & Viner, R. M. (2017). Global trends in adolescent fertility, 1990-2012, in relation to national wealth, income inequality, and educational expenditures. Journal of Adolescent Health, 60(2), 161-168.

World Health Organization [WHO]. (2018). Adolescent Pregnancy: Unmet Needs and Undone Deeds. Retrieved from

Planned Parenthood. (2021). Counseling and Mental Health. Retrieved from

Matarazzo, B. B., Barnes, S. M., Pease, J. L., Russell, L. M., & Bovin, M. J. (2019). The prevalence and impact of moral injury and mental health outcomes in veterans and active duty military. Traumatology, 25(2), 95-103.

Moreira, H., & Gouveia, M. J. (2019). Can digital technology enhance the well-being of college students? A qualitative analysis of the challenges and opportunities. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1307.

Markham, C. M., Tortolero, S. R., Peskin, M. F., & Shegog, R. (2016). Behavioral interventions to reduce sexually transmitted infections in adolescents: A review of the literature. Journal of Adolescent Health, 58(5), 457-470




How to Cite

Otumo, D. E., & Umoh, G. G. (2024). The Issues and the Challenges of Teenage Pregnancy: Investigating the Counseling Implications of the Speedy Remedial and Strategies for Sustainable Development. International Journal of Integrative and Modern Medicine, 2(3), 25–38. Retrieved from